Cerebral Palsy


Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive pathologic lesion in the developing infant or child’s brain causing permanent motor and/or sensory impairment. (American Academy of Pediatrics)

Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood, and affects a person’s mobility, posture, and balance.


There are both various types and degrees of cerebral palsy. It may be diagnosed when delayed gross motor development, abnormal motor performance, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal postures at rest, and reflex abnormalities become discernible.

Types of cerebral palsy: The four most common types of CP are:

  • Athetoid: constant, uncontrolled motion of the arms and legs, head and eyes.
  • Ataxic: poor sense of balance, often causing falls and stumbles.
  • Rigid: tight muscles that resist effort to make them move.
  • Spastic:  tense, contracted muscles.  This is the most common type of CP.

The topography of cerebral palsy describes how CP effects the body and is based on what areas of the brain are affected.

  • Diplegia: the legs are more affected than the upper body
  • Hemiplegia: one side of the body is affected only (e.g. left arm and leg only).
  • Quadriplegia: all limbs are affected.
  • Tetraplegia, three limbs are affected; and Monoplegia, one limb is affected.


Cerebral Palsy is the most common permanent physical disability of childhood. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), about 1 in 323 children has been diagnosed with CP. Cerebral Palsy is more common in boys than in girls, and an overwhelming majority of children with CP have spastic CP, one of the four types of the disorder. Many children also have at least one co-occurring condition, such as epilepsy and Austim Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

There are three causes of cerebral palsy:

  • Prenatal: This accounts for about 70% of the cases and may be caused by infection, lack of oxygen, toxins, Rh disease, genetics or congenital malformation of the brain.
  • Natal: (5-10%) and may be caused by lack of oxygen, a metabolic cause or a traumatic delivery.
  • Postnatal: This means it is acquired after birth due to trauma to the brain by an accident, infection or a toxin.


As with most developmental disabilities, the outcome for a child with CP can be dramatically improved with early intervention and treatment. There is no cure for CP, but treatments can improve the outlook for many children. Symptoms vary from person to person. Some people with CP are able to live very independent lives with no special equipment. Others may use a wheelchair or other equipment and need lifelong support. CP does not progress or get worse over time, but as a person grows, changes, and ages, their needs and symptoms may change.

Occupational therapy can help with posture, mobility fine motor and daily living skill development.  Physical therapy can help to prevent muscles from weakening and rigid contractures, Adaptive equipment can assist people with CP to become mobile and comfortable and sometimes surgical intervention can improve muscle function.